Half-Real: a dictionary of video game theory

Bem, é um dicionário da teoria proposta pelo Jesper Juul, mas está online e é de graça, então vale o link. Como um dicionário, está separado em verbetes, como, por exemplo:


It has been said that what we call games have nothing in common (Wittgenstein 1958, segment 66), but many definitions and descriptions of games have been proposed.

  • Neumann and Morgenstern (1953, p.49) distinguish between a game(such as poker) and the play of the game (a specific session of poker).
  • Huizinga (1950, 15): “a free activity standing quite consciously outside ”ordinary” life as being ”not serious”, but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner. It promotes the formation of social groupings which tend to surround themselves with secrecy and to stress their difference from the common world by disguise or other means.”
  • Caillois (1961, 10-11): ” […] an activity which is essentially: Free (voluntary), separate [in time and space], uncertain, unproductive, governed by rules, make-believe.”
  • Bernard Suits (1978,34): “To play a game is to engage in activity directed towards bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by rules, where the rules prohibit more efficient in favor of less efficient means, and where such rules are accepted just because they make possible such activity.”
  • Avedon & Sutton-Smith (1971, 7): “At its most elementary level then we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome.”
  • Crawford (1982, chapter 2): “I perceive four common factors: representation [“a closed formal system that subjectively represents a subset of reality”], interaction, conflict, and safety [“the results of a game are always less harsh than the situations the game models”].”
  • Salen & Zimmerman (2004, 96): A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome.
  • Half-Real, chapter 2:A game is a rule-based system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned differentvalues, the player exerts effort in order to influence the outcome, the player feels emotionally attached to the outcome, and the consequencesof the activity are optional and negotiable.

See play.
Salen & Zimmerman (2004) compare different game definitions.

Half-Real, chapter 2.

Podia explorar bem melhor as possibilidades hipertextuais, ao contrário, é um dicionário quase totalmente linear, os únicos links estão no “ver também”. Mas é um começo…


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